Пленарная сессия «Новые вызовы: новая конкурентная политика»

Пленарная сессия «Новые вызовы: новая конкурентная политика»

В четверг, 17 мая, в рамках Петербургского Международного Юридического Форума состоялась пленарная сессия «Новые вызовы: новая конкурентная политика». На заседании эксперты обсудили способы регулирования и функционирования цифровой экономики в современных реалиях, проблему процесса сбора больших данных как рычага для доминирования на рынке, а также  ведение демонополизации в новых условиях.

В дискуссии приняли участие  руководитель Федеральной антимонопольной службы  Игорь Артемьев, председатель  Административного совета по экономической защите Бразилии Александр Баретто Де Суза, президент Конкурентного ведомства Турции Омер Торлак, профессор Индианского университета Хамид  Экбиа, заместитель руководителя Комиссии по конкуренции ЮАР Ратшисусу Мулало, директор Института права и развития ВШЭ-Сколково Алексей Иванов, советник Комиссии по конкуренции Индии Прамод Синх. Модератором сессии выступил заместитель руководителя Федеральной антимонопольной службы Илья Пузыревский.

Дискуссию открыл руководитель ФАС Игорь Артемьев, выступивший с докладом «Инновационный подход к конкурентной политике». «Мы хотим рассказать, что произошло в последнее время, как мы видим новые подходы. Время летит неумолимо, и каждый год рождает новые практики, судебные решения. И нужно идти в правильном направлении. Нужны консультации, требуется все время сверяться с духом времени и подходами наших коллег из-за рубежа в том, что является лучшей практикой, а что является плохой», – сказал он.

Эксперт напомнил, что недавно Президентом РФ Владимиром Путиным был утвержден план развития конкуренции в России на 2018-2020 годы, а также приняты дорожные карты развития конкуренции в различных отраслях экономики. «Президент собрал госсовет, губернаторов нашей страны, руководителей законодательной, исполнительной ветвей власти. И позавчера вышло его решение, согласно которому каждая провинция нашей страны должна согласовать с  антимонопольной службой программу конкуренции. Если привести примеры, то, допустим, если доля частного транспорта у какого-то региона составляет один процент, то за два-три года она должна стать не менее 30 процентов», – отметил глава ФАС.

По словам Игоря Артемьева, демонополизация должна стать началом пути к новой российской экономике, а синергия полномочий антимонопольного ведомства доказала свою эффективность. Говоря о цифровой экономике, он отметил, что нынешние подходы к законодательству «устаревают на глазах». «Наше представление о горизонтальном устройстве рынка – это нечто подобное мнению, что система мира является геоцентрической. И когда Коперник и другие ученые решили, что система гелиоцентрична, никто не мог себе это представить и поверить», – полагает чиновник.

Чтобы регулировать цифровую экономику, нужны адекватные механизмы, а также совместная работа с регуляторами других стран БРИКС, заключил Игорь Артемьев. «Чтобы поймать цифровую мышь, нужен цифровой кот. Цифровая мышь у нас уже большая, хищная, она выглядывает из разных углов, поэтому кот должен быть очень хорошо подготовлен – и физически, и законодательно», – сказал он.

Председатель  Административного совета по экономической защите Бразилии Александр Баретто Де Суза отметил, что перед тем, как регулировать рынок, важно задаться вопросом: нужно ли нам регулирование в новых экономических условиях – и, в случае положительного ответа на него, понять, какого именно типа регулирование требуется. «Рынок в цифровой экономике изменяется, меняются его структура и поведение. В каждом случае надо анализировать конкретно, для того, чтобы понять, что делается на конкурентном рынке, чтобы не было слишком большого вмешательства со стороны регулятора, которое не позволит работать рынку», – заявил специалист.

Заместитель руководителя Комиссии по конкуренции ЮАР Ратшисусу Мулало отметил, что в его стране сейчас многие компании имеют преобладающее значение на рынке, а получить туда доступ мелким и средним компаниям очень сложно. «Учитывая новые вызовы, я полагаю, что главный акцент должен быть на тех задачах, которые стоят перед нами сегодня. Это рост использования данных, <…> постоянный рост транснациональных корпораций через мегаслияние, которые начинают доминировать на самых разных рынках по всем цепочкам стоимости и в разных странах. Это происходит в связи с торговыми соглашениями, которые иногда отражают именно интересы транснациональных корпораций, а не развитие конкуренций и местных рынков», – считает представитель ведомства. Он добавил, что за последние 8 лет соответствующие органы БРИКС совершали инициативные  шаги по развитию регулирования в области конкуренции, и эту координацию требуется развивать и укреплять.

Советник Комиссии по конкуренции Индии Прамод Синх отметил, что требует регуляции и горизонтальная интеграция. «Горизонтальная интеграция  – еще одно явление, которое приводит к созданию крупных онлайн-платформ. Причем потребители им денег не платят, а компании получают большое количество данных пользователей. И тут встает вопрос об использовании данных как актива, инструмента и рычага конкуренции. Процесс сбора больших данных играет значительную роль, и мы стараемся это максимально учитывать. Это может стать рычагом к получению доминирующего положения на рынке», – отметил специалист.

Профессор Индианского университета Хамид  Экбиа в своем выступлении отметил, что общество и рынок движутся к полной автоматизации. «Разница между тем, что было ранее, и тем, что есть сейчас, касается технического прогресса, автоматизации. Многие люди думают, что машины-роботы делают то, что люди делали ранее, они замещают людей во многих функциях. Это умные машины, Силиконовая долина, завод «Тесла» в Калифорнии. Полная автоматизация не за горами, и это не я утверждаю, а Илон Маск», –сказал он.

Исследователь добавил, что сейчас имеет смысл говорить о новом духе капитализма, где преобладает создание глобальных сетей и глобальной платформы, где люди могут находиться в режиме онлайн семь дней в неделю и 24 часа в сутки. «Что это означает для монополии? Те же самые признаки: инклюзивная логика, транспарентность  –  то, что дает возможность сохранять на глобальных рынках некоторые признаки монополизма», – заключил Хамид Экбиа.

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