Банк России: планируемое повышение НДС увеличит инфляцию на 1%

Екатерина Чернявская

Банк России: планируемое повышение НДС увеличит инфляцию на 1%
iDyMax / Depositphotos.com

Выступая на пленарном заседании Госдумы, Председатель Банка России Эльвира Набиуллина представила годовой отчет и отметила, что в случае повышения НДС инфляция может временно подняться чуть выше целевого показателя до 4,5% в следующем году и потом вернется к 4%: «Повышение НДС добавит, по нашим оценкам, примерно 1% в инфляцию. Сейчас, когда инфляция находится на уровне 2,5%, мы с большой вероятностью сможем достаточно спокойно пройти моменты изменения ставки НДС, удержав инфляцию на уровне 4%».

Также она сообщила, что ставки по банковским кредитам последовательно снижаются, а объемы кредитования растут. Так, за последние 12 месяцев рост кредитования компаний составил 4,3%, а физлиц – 18,3%. При этом ставки по кредитам корпоративным заемщикам снизились с 11,3% до 8,5% в среднем, по кредитам физлицам – с 15,3% до 13,3%, ставки по ипотечным кредитам – с 11,4% до 9,57%.

По словам Председателя Банка России, рост кредитов произошел за счет очищения банковской системы от слабых и недобросовестных игроков: в прошлом году было отозвано около 50 банковских лицензий, а в этом году – 28. Набиуллина выделила особую роль принятия закона о санации: «Санация позволила нам защитить от потерь 8 млн клиентов этих банков) и 563 тыс. предприятий». Она выразила надежду на поддержку депутатов Госдумы во введении субсидиарной ответственности собственников и для владельцев банков, наложения ареста на активы, когда они испытывают трудности, ограничения на выезд за рубеж для приведших свой банк к краху собственников и усиление уголовной ответственности за фальсификацию отчетности.

Глава Регулятора сообщила о поддержке инициативы расширить систему страхования вкладов на малый бизнес, однако обратила внимание и на необходимость распространить действие указанной системы на благотворительные организации, организации социальной направленности. Кроме того Банк России предлагает увеличить сумму страхового возмещения до 10 млн руб. для случаев, когда граждане объективно не могли управлять рисками, размещая свои средства. Речь идет о средствах от продажи недвижимости, страховых выплат, социальных пособий и т. д.

Она напомнила о переходе к двухуровневой модели банковской системы, выделив его ключевую цель – создание условий региональным банкам для кредитования малого и среднего бизнеса. По ее словам, около трети всех банков будут работать на базовой лицензии.

Набиуллина остановилась на полисах ОСАГО, отметив, что за 2017 год заключено более 7,8 млн электронных договоров (около 20% от общего количества договоров ОСАГО), причем сейчас электронное ОСАГО составляет уже 25%. Также она напомнила о введении в прошлом году преимущественного натурального возмещения вреда в ОСАГО, но не смогла назвать ситуацию в этой сфере страхования стабильной из-за жалоб на коэффициент бонус-малус. «Мы предлагаем изменить этот коэффициент, расширив коридор цены полиса на 20% вниз и вверх», – сообщила Председатель Банка России. Речь идет о проекте указания Регулятора о введении годового порядка расчета коэффициента бонус-малус.

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